02 Sep 2015


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Images from the Trustees of the British Museum, All Rights Reserved

Images from the Trustees of the British Museum, All Rights Reserved

Archaeologists love to solve mysteries, and one of the most interesting American mysteries is the disappearance of the men, women and children who vanished from the Roanoke Island colony between 1587 and 1590. They were the third group of England’s first attempts to establish a presence in North America.  We know what happened to the first group of 107 men that landed on Roanoke Island in 1585. They were all soldiers and adventurers sent by Sir Walter Raleigh who had a charter from Queen Elizabeth to explore and draw maps while the ships returned to England for supplies. Within a year the explorers had angered their Native American neighbors, so when Sir Francis Drake stopped at Roanoke on his way back to England after his attack on Spanish St. Augustine, they eagerly took the opportunity to sail home. When Raleigh’s supply ships returned to the settlement, they found it deserted and sailed back to England, but left 15 men behind to protect Raleigh’s claim. In 1587, Raleigh sent a third group, not soldiers this time, but 115 men, women and children who arrived to find only a skeleton (probably the remains of one of the 15 men). In spite of these frightful circumstances, the colonists agreed to stay and promised to leave a coded instruction if they left the settlement before the ships returned with reinforcements. Part of the message was to be a Maltese cross, a code meaning that they had been attacked. The ships were delayed in England by a war with Spain, and did not return to the colony until 1590 when they found the colony abandoned and houses were taken down. Only the cryptic messages, “Croatoan” carved on one of the wooden posts of the palisade surrounding the tiny settlement, and “CRO” scratched on a tree, remained (Richard Hakluyt, The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques, and Discoveries of the English Nation, 1590).  There was no Maltese cross, but the word “Croatoan” was the name of the Native American Indians on an island 50 miles south. However, a search could not be conducted at that time because of bad weather, and the ships returned to England without any information about the settlers.

Interest in the mysterious disappearance has continued for more than 400 years.  Stories of gray or blue-eyed Indians with yellow hair spread, but no definitive evidence was ever found. Now, archaeologists believe they have an answer. New evidence shows that the colonists did have a relationship with the Native American settlement on the island of the Croatoan (Hatteras Island) as well as with another Indian settlement about 50 miles northwest of Roanoke Island at Albemarle Sound near what today is Edenton, North Carolina. These conclusions were reached because of new technology now available to archaeologists (New York Times, Aug. 11, 2015, and National Geographic, Aug. 7, 2015.

The first new evidence comes from a map of the entire area drawn by John White, an artist and cartographer of Raleigh’s 1585 and 1586 expeditions.  It shows the Virginia and Carolina coasts as well as Indian villages of the area. John White had put patches over two areas on the map.  The patches could not be removed without damaging the map so no one knew what the patches covered.  But in 2012, archaeologists applied X-ray spectroscopy to the patch covering the Albemarle site that revealed a sketch of a fort underneath. This was also the site of an Indian village, and a fort would indicate the presence of the English in this area as early as 1586, White’s second trip to North America.  Tree ring analysis indicates that a severe drought hit the Roanoke area between 1587 and 1589. An English fort at the inland site would have been a logical destination for starving Roanoke colonists.  At the very least, it shows that the colonists knew that the site had been explored by the English as a likely place to plant a settlement. Excavations have not revealed a fort, but using LIDAR, radar that can “see” under the foliage, archaeologists found English artifacts such as ceramics at Roanoke colony that match the ceramics at Albemarle. The ceramics, called Border ware, were made in England at pottery industries on the Surry/Hampshire border during the 16th and 17th centuries.

The Border ware found at Roanoke and Albemarle was specific to the time of the Roanoke settlement.  No Border ware has been found at the Croatoan Indian village on Hatteras, but other English artifacts are there such as a16th century signet ring and gun hardware (Phelps, Croatan Archaeological Site Collection).  These indicate close interactions between the settlers and the Indians at both sites. The presence of women and children could have softened the relationship between the settlers and the Indians who had initially been friendly to the first group of male explorers in 1585 and were again friendly at the first landing of explorers at what eventually became Jamestown (Archer Diary, 1607, National Archives CO 1/1).

DNA studies of Croatoan descendants are ongoing in the search for clues (Associated Press, 6/11/2007) and archaeologists will certainly be excitedly digging for more answers.

20 Jul 2015

Kennewick Man closely related to Native Americans, geneticists say

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Genetic analysis is playing an important role in answering questions about the past. In the case of the skeleton known as Kennewick Man, called the Ancient One by Native American groups, five Native American tribes of the Pacific Northwest requested repatriation of the remains for reburial, but the proceedings were halted to allow further investigation into the skeleton’s origins.

“Using ancient DNA, we were able to show that Kennewick Man is more closely related to Native Americans than any other population,” said postdoctoral scholar Morten Rasmussen, PhD. Rasmussen is the lead author of the research, published online June 17 in Nature.

“Advances in DNA sequencing technology have given us important new tools for studying the great human diasporas and the history of indigenous populations,” said  Carlos Bustamante, PhD, professor of genetics. “Now we are seeing its adoption in new areas, including forensics and archeology. The case of Kennewick Man is particularly interesting given the debates surrounding the origins of Native American populations. Morten’s work aligns beautifully with the oral history of native peoples and lends strong support for their claims.”

Read the full story at Science Daily.

Full story credit: Stanford University Medical Center. “Kennewick Man closely related to Native Americans, geneticists say.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 18 June 2015. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/06/150618134420.htm>

27 May 2015

Florida Anthropological Society Comes to Town

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Time Sifters will be hosting over 200 archaeologists from around the state this weekend for the 67th Annual Meeting of the Florida Anthropological Society. 57 presenters will share current research by delivering a paper or showcasing a poster of their project.

Click for the FINAL SCHEDULE.

The interested public is welcome to attend; registration is available on-site for $60. Additional weekend highlights include:

Saturday, May 30th, 6:30pm: BANQUET at the Hyatt: Keynote Speaker Dr. Jerald Milanich. $50.00.

“Five Formative Years in the Life of J.T. Milanich, Dirt Archaeologist, 1966-1971” In his illustrated presentation Milanich will explain how it came to be that he participated in the 1969 excavation of the Yellow Bluffs-Whitaker Mound in Sarasota, a project some people (well, actually only one person) have said is the birth of New College’s outstanding archaeology program. The excavation in the Spring of 1969 was quickly followed by (but was not a cause of) the infamous Summer of Love when music lovers flocked to Woodstock, spacemen first landed on the moon,  Dave Van Ronk played the Philadephia Folk Festival, and Milanich excavated at Historic Bethlehem (Pennsylvania).

Sunday, May 31st, 9am:  MORNING CRUISE on Sarasota Bay. Prehistory, history, and humor presented at lightning speed by a native Sarasotan, font of knowledge, and local treasure, John McCarthy. $25.00

03 May 2015

Enchantments: Julian Dimock’s Photographs of Southwest Florida

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ENCHANTMENTS REVIEW Book Review by Vald Svekis

Enchantments: Julian Dimock’s Photographs of Southwest Florida is a magical book turning the pages of southwest Florida history back more than 100 years.  Jerry Milanich and Nina Root have assembled photographs which invite daydreams of our Florida long altered by time.  The authors selected some 100+ photographs from the Julian Dimock collection of thousands.  The book is a remarkable weaving of landscape, people, birds and animals into a seductive trip through time of Marco Island, the Everglades, and the Ten Thousand Islands.

The cover photo of three girls, dressed in their finery, on the Marco Island beach captivates my imagination.  I keep thinking of the Swiss Family Robinson and castaways but know reality has to be something simpler like a visit to the beach after church.  However, June 6, 1907 was a Thursday.  Some mystery lingers.

My favorites photos are the jumping tarpon; a boy diving from a sailboat’s rigging; a pet bobcat onboard a boat (the cat heard a rooster soon afterward and dove into the water, swimming to shore in pursuit); three young tricolored herons whose mother had forgotten to brush their crops; a prospering pineapple plantation (later destroyed by salt water from a hurricane); crocodiles (when did they disappear?); hunting for honey trees; moonshiner camp; Seminole men trudging through the Everglades after buying supplies at a trading outpost; and the photo of Edgar Watson, notorious bad guy, who was killed by his Chokoloskee Bay neighbors in 1910. The photos stand alone, but are enriched by excerpts from original magazine articles written by the Dimocks.

Anybody perusing this book would have their own favorites.  Enchantments would be a fine addition to anybody’s library and even stowed on a coffee table for the enjoyment of guests.  I have hope that Jerry Milanich and Nina Root will publish more of the Dimock photos in the future.

In addition to the inevitable change and development in southern Florida, water levels have risen 9 inches in the last 100 years, altering the landscape and making many of the views non-reproducible.

Published by University Press of Florida.

22 Apr 2015

The Minoans of Crete – New Research Featured in Archaeology Magazine

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(Courtesy Chronis Papanikolopoulos)Across the site, the team has found examples of Mirabello Ware, a distinctive type of pottery produced there on a large scale for both local use and for trade.

(Courtesy Chronis Papanikolopoulos) Across the site, the team has found examples of Mirabello Ware, a distinctive type of pottery produced there on a large scale for both local use and for trade.

From 1901 to 1904, Harriet Boyd excavated the remains of an ancient town on the island of Crete that had lain buried and unknown for nearly 3,500 years. The largest island in Greece and fifth largest in the Mediterranean, Crete has attracted visitors, travelers, and traders for thousands, and even tens of thousands, of years. Crete’s first great civilization was that of the Minoans, and archaeologists have long studied the palaces like that of Knossos. But in 2010, Vance Watrous of the University of Buffalo and his team began new excavations at Gournia, the site that Boyd had worked more than a century earlier. “We’re looking instead at the site’s earlier history, the Protopalatial period, and questions of what happened before the development of the palace, how Gournia came to be a regional center, and what kind of town it was during these early phases,”

Harriet Boyd stated in her site publication, “The chief archaeological value of Gournia is that it has given us a remarkably clear picture of the everyday circumstances, occupations, and ideals of the Aegean folk at the height of their true prosperity.”

In the course of both Boyd’s and Watrous’ excavations, more than 50 houses or areas with evidence of industrial activity have been uncovered—20 areas producing pottery, 15 producing stone vases, 18 producing bronze and bronze implements, and some with evidence for textile production. John Younger of the University of Kansas found complete pottery workshop. In one room of the workshop they found 15 intact pots sitting upright on some benches, and in another room he found four large jars with numerous smaller pots inside. “There were pots inside pots for storage, just like I have in my cupboard at home,” Younger says.

Read the fascinating full story by Jarrett A. Lobell at Archaeology.

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